Fun Things to Do – A Guide to Model Rocketry

Model rocketry involves the construction and launching of amateur rockets made from paper, wood, plastic, and other lightweight materials. In general, people of all ages participate in this hobby, including children ages 4 and up. Model rocketry hobbyists attempt to launch and recover their projects by a variety of means that follows the National Association of Rocketry (NAR) Safety Code. The code strictly regulates the choice of motor use, launch site, launching, placement, recovery system, and deployment methods. The safety code was instated since the early 1960s after dangerous mishaps involving the use of flammable substances and sharp projectiles. Despite these inherent dangers, model rocketry has proven to be a safe hobby for those who follow the strict guidelines outlined by its overseeing organizations.

The earliest origins of model rocketry traces as far back as the early 13th century, whereby the Chinese used black powder propelled objects as weapons of warfare. The Chinese set arrows ablaze and launched them from a catapult. Over the next few hundred years, refinements were made that improved the efficiency of rockets used as weaponry. After the launch of Sputnik, many people attempted to construct their own miniature rockets that failed in numerous tragedies. It was until 1954 that Orville and Robert Carlise designed the first model rocket and corresponding motor that would launch safely. In an effort to make their model rockets available on the market, the Carlise’s contacted a range of safety officers who built, flew their prototype model rockets, and the wrote an applicable safety handbook.

Shortly after the development of safe model rockets, many manufacturers emerged to mass produce varying model rockets of different shapes, sizes, colors, and weight. The most competitors within the model rocket industry include Centuri, Cox, and Estes. The advent of high-powered model rockets propelled the interest among hobbyists for many decades. Its continued following makes it a fun activity for children of all ages. In addition, it teaches students the scientific laws of propulsion, force and momentum, and the thrust of a rocket. Many students who have constructed their own model rockets have taken an interest in various scientific studies, and often become scientists or engineers. Even those children who never developed an interest for model rocketry have expressed appreciation for the hobby. It certainly engages both logical and creative faculties. It also reinforces the necessity to follow directions without faltering.

Model rocketry has evolved into a sport, whereby competitors meet to show off their newest projects. Competitors may purchase a manufactured model rocket, or may construct their own following the strict safety guidelines outlined by the National Association of Rocketry. The safety code pertains to the complete construction of a model rocket and its components, including the motor, recovery devices, and instrumentation that may allow for aerial photography. Model rocketry enthusiasts are encouraged to join a local organization that will involve like-minded people. Despite of the declining interest in practical hobbies and the surge in technological gadgets, this will enliven and continue the hobby for future generations to come.

Follow these links to learn more about model rocketry:

Flying Fun: Kites

Although nobody knows exactly when the sport and hobby of kiting originated, historic evidence does show that it has been practiced for several thousands of years. Originally in parts of Asia, kites were used for military purposes. They were also viewed as having magical properties that could keep evil entities at bay. It was only by the late 16th century that people in Asia took up kite flying for fun. In other parts of the world, kites were also used to deliver messages, catch fish, and engage in competition. Today people fly kites for pleasure or competitively. Kites have even developed into other sports that include kiteboarding and snowkiting, as well as other purposes like aerial photography.

Types of Kites

There are many different types of kites that are used today. The most well-known is the flat, single-line kite that typically comes in a distinctive diamond shape. On the other hand, multi-line kites might use several lines for better control. These kites are preferred for stunt kiting and competitions. Stunt kites, also known as sport kites, normally tend to be V-shaped, which lends them plenty of speed in flight and changing directions. They come in a number of different varieties for different experience levels. Stunt kites can be outfitted with attachments that add extra weight to the tail for better maneuverability. Power kites are very large C-shaped kites that allow for plenty of pull. These are best for kiteboarding and similar sports that require the kite to pull a person along.

How to Fly a Kite

New kite flyers should always read the instruction manuals that come with their kite before flying it. Wait for a clear day without rain or storms. The best areas for kite flying are large open spaces without electrical wires, towers and trees. Let out a sufficient amount of line and position the kite so that it is opposite the direction of the wind. Have a helper hold the kite up and then let it go when you are ready. As the kite takes off, you can take it higher by releasing more of the line and running opposite the wind.

Building Your Own Kite

Making a basic single-line kite on your own requires only a few materials. This might include cloth (or even paper), a few lengths of wood, string, tape, and a pair of scissors. There are plenty of tutorials online that explain how to put together a simple or more advanced kite. For a more festive approach, try building one of the traditional Asian kites. Children especially enjoy these types of activities and can be included in some parts of the construction.

Competition Kiting

Kiting is even more fun when it is done with other people. Having a competition makes it even more challenging. Quite often, kiting competitions look for those who can fly their kites the highest. Kite ballet is another aspect of competitive kiting, in which two or more kites perform acrobatic maneuvers in unison. Each year there are several kiting festivals across the country that holds a competition event as well. Some Asian countries practice kite fighting, where each competitor attempts to cause other kites to fall from the sky. In some areas, this is achieved by covering the kite’s line in a fine glass powder that cuts other kite lines.

Kiteboarding

Kiteboarding is a new form of extreme sport that involves a large power kite pulling a person on a board in the water. It requires plenty of training and practice. Kiteboarding is also sometimes known as kitesurfing, for the similarity to standard surfing. While some people kiteboard for fun, others also engage in competitive kiteboarding. Advanced kiteboarders can perform tricks and jumps. Serious kiteboarders pay special attention to the kind of kite they use. Larger power kites can carry a person in fairly low winds; while small ones require rather strong winds. As with any extreme sport, kiteboarding requires a high degree of safety and precaution. Kiteboarders should have a safety boat nearby and should also be powerful swimmers.

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The Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis

The Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis took place on the 23rd of October, 2002, in downtown Moscow at the Dubrovka Theater. Nearly 50 heavily armed male and female masked rebels took approximately 850 audience and staff members hostage during a sold-out performance of the musical, Nord-Ost. The rebels included three Chechen affiliated groups who were loyal allies with the Islamist Militant Separatist Movement in Chechnya, which was organized and led by 22-year-old Movsar Basayev. The purpose behind the attack was to demand the withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and consequently, influence the end of the Second Chechen War.

The siege began during the middle of a performance of Nord-Ost, Russia’s first big-budget musical, which had recently become popular. Therefore, the crisis is also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost Siege. The Chechen terrorists entered through the front of the theater, disrupting the play by firing a machine gun into the air. Although initially, the patrons believed the intrusion to be part of the play, the rebels stopped the performance and kept the audience members in their seats at gunpoint. Around 22 of the rebels were female suicide bombers dressed in black, with explosives visibly seen strapped to their waists, yet their faces were covered. The remaining terrorists were young males dressed in military fatigues, holding grenades and rifles. They pushed the actors off the stage and ordered the musicians to come out of the orchestra’s pit. The militants rigged the doors, basement and attic with explosives to prevent exit or entry. Two large aircraft bombs each weighing 110 lbs. were brought in, one being placed within the audience in row 11 and the other on the balcony. They then announced to the hostages that they were “bringing the Chechen War to Moscow.”

During the hostage taking, Movsar Basayev allowed the captives to use their cell phones for contacting friends, relatives, authorities and the media to deliver information regarding the siege. Hostages included Americans, Australians, Brits, Germans, Austrians and the Dutch. The hostages were forced to use the orchestra pit as a toilet. Although reports vary, it’s estimated that approximately 30 hostages were released on the first night, including 15 to 20 children under 12 years of age, as well as a man with a heart problem. A 26-year-old woman by the name of Olga Romanova escaped being seen by authorities and entered the theater without authorization or police escort to confront the terrorists, and urge them to free the hostages. She became the first casualty when the rebels determined her to be a Federal Security Service (FSB) Agent and shot her. Police sealed off the building and three days of agonizing negotiations followed.

In addition to the immediate and total removal of Russian military forces from the Russian Republic of Chechnya, the war-ridden region north of the Caucasus Mountains, demands of the Chechens included instantaneous termination of the heavy weapons being used by Russia in Chechnya. Intense negotiations and violence continued, resulting in gunfire and hostages trying to fight their captors after being told no one would be getting out alive. Demands of the captors were uncompromising, suggesting they were driven by apocalyptic cultural and faith interpretations. However, Russian authorities stated they would not surrender to blackmail, which led to the terrorists releasing additional hostages 57 hours after the siege began. Hopes began increasing when the Red Cross announced 75 hostages were being released.

After two and one-half days, Russian Special Forces and snipers launched a raid and evacuation operation, surrounding the theater and entering through the theater’s sewage system. They thrust a powerful narcotic gas containing Fentanyl into the ventilation system in order to incapacitate the terrorists and eliminate the element of surprise so that they wouldn’t detonate the explosives they were threatening to use. What took place following the gassing was a fierce gun battle between Russian Special Forces and the male rebels. The female suicide bombers were shot in the head by snipers to prevent detonation of the explosives attached to their bodies. The opium-derived gas left more than 120 hostages and Chechen rebels dead, as well as their leader, Movsar Barayev. However, it was reported that 12 of the militants escaped the raid during the confusion and although police performed a search, their whereabouts remains unknown.

Casualties of the Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis consisted of 41 militants and 129 hostages, which included nine foreigners and ten children, however, no police officers were killed during the assault. According to Military spokesman, Sergei Ignatchenko, the militants started to execute the hostages when the raid began. Conversely, it was also reported that nearly all the captives were still alive after the terrorists were eliminated and that hostage casualties came as a result of succumbing to the toxic gas, having already been weakened from nervous exhaustion and dehydration. Many hostages died shortly after the raid from asphyxiation outside the theater and while being transported to the hospital. A high amount of controversy surrounding the use of the lethal gas left authorities forced to defend their actions, which were condemned by the media as “heavy handed.” The heated debate led to an investigation by experts that there was no apparent link between the gas and hostage casualties.

Reasons behind the hostage situation include the global war on terrorism, as asserted by President Vladimir Putin, in addition to the Chechens attempting to establish power. After the fall of the Soviet Union in December of 1991, Chechen separatists attempted to coordinate a campaign for independence in response to The Second Chechen War, also known as The Russian Chechen Conflict. President Vladimir Putin, as well as many other theorists claimed the crisis had roots in the al-Qaeda and the Islamist Separatist Movement.

The Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis resulted in a loss of innocent lives as a result of the international war on terrorism. The siege was due in large part to a Russian battle against Islamic fundamental extremists and The Second Chechen War. Although controversy surrounded the incident with regard to the way in which Russian Special Forces managed the raid and evacuation, the mission’s objective was to spare as many lives as possible. The terror experienced the night of October 23rd, 2002, by nearly 900 innocent citizens was merely the beginning of an escalation of extreme, future global violence.

Complete Guide to Film Noir

Literary Origins

Like many cinematic movements, film noir had its roots in literature. “Hardboiled” literature, marked by the heavy drinking, chain smoking, loner hero with a penchant for violence and having mismanaged his money, directly influenced American cinema as much as any literary style.

The main contributors to the hardboiled literary movement (and therefore to the film noir movement) were Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, and James M. Cain.

Dashiell Hammett’s most well-known literary contribution to hardboiled literature was his seminal work, The Maltese Falcon, is attributed with being one of the most important pieces of fiction in the hardboiled movement. Sam Spade, the hero of The Maltese Falcon, would eventually become inseparable from the genre of film noir, a household name despite being a fictional character. His eye for detail combined with his seemingly cold detachment brought back shades of Sherlock Holmes, though the violent world in which he lived (combined with the violence he himself created) made him a natural progression to archetypal modern American detective character.

Raymond Chandler, who created the character Philip Marlowe is at least as synonymous with “private detective” as Hammett’s Sam Spade. A prime example of the hardboiled tough guy, the man with nothing to lose except his own unerring sense of justice, Marlowe became a new image of the American hero. A grittier hero than that which could be found in comic book pages, a hero not afforded superhuman powers with which to bring justice and therefore did so with a keen intellect, a true moral compass, and a gun. 

The third in what was essentially a triumvirate of founding literary fathers in the hardboiled movement was James M. Cain. His novels, which included The Postman Always Rings Twice, Mildred Pierce, and, one of the first film noir pieces adapted from literature, Double Indemnity, were highly successful in the American market. 

The hardboiled style, however, is not lost to more modern literary movements. Sue Grafton, whose “Alphabet Novels” have sold millions, feature a character by the name of Kinsey Millhone. Seeing Millhone usher in a new age of film noir is unlikely, however, as Grafton, a former screenwriter, has threatened to haunt her children if they ever sell the movie rights to her novels. Further, Robert B. Parker continued the hardboiled tradition with his Spencer novels, along with his Jesse Stone novels, until his death in 2010. Finally, Mickey Spillane, who wrote the character Mike Hammer, sold more than 225 million books in his lifetime, proving the appeal of the hardboiled tradition is long from dead.

Current Crime Noir Writers

Cinematic Origins

The Maltese Falcon, perhaps the most famous example of film noir cinema, was actually made twice, with the second rendition being the most remembered. Humphrey Bogart, who could thank Dashiell Hammett as much as his own talent for his eventual status as Hollywood tough guy, played Sam Spade. Mary Astor played Gladys George and is remembered in Hollywood lore as much for this role as any other. One of the telling marks of film noir was the femme fatale, an attractive love interest capable of ensnaring the male lead, usually bringing about dangerous situations either through action or inaction in times of need.

The Woman in the Window is yet another example of film noir, and is in fact one of the films to have had the term “film noir” used to describe it. Its dark tone and content was like nothing the cinema had ever seen before, and it quickly spawned what was a cinematic experiment into a full-blown movement.

Laura stars Gene Tierney, who, like Barbara Stanwyck, Joan Crawford, and Marie Windsor, was a mainstay in film of the period, and is the tale of Mark McPherson. McPherson, a detective, has been tasked with solving the murder of a woman named Laura. Through reading her journals and speaking to the woman’s friends, McPherson slowly becomes obsessed with Laura.  

Murder, My Sweet was one of many Raymond Chandler novels to be adapted into a successful film. In this particular film, Dick Powell, who, along with Robert Mitchum and Burt Lancaster, was well known within the genre, is tasked with finding the missing girlfriend of a character by the name of Moose Malloy. In typical film noir fashion, the path to the goal gets increasingly darker as the story progresses.

Film noir continues to be a viable cinematic technique, etching out a place for itself as much as any other genre. While films of the sort made prior to 1960 were called film noir, noir films made post 1960 are called neo-noir. These are often exaggerated versions of the original style, though this does not mean the films are of a low quality. In fact, some of the most acclaimed films of all time, including The Limey, Memento, Blood Simple, Chinatown, have continued the honored tradition of film noir to the present day.

A Virtual Road Trip For Kids – Explore the 50 States

The United States of America is a land of great beauty and diversity. This diversity is found not only in the various cultures and peoples but also in the environments of the 50 states. The states that make America unique vary by geographic features and have vast differences in native plant and animal species as well as climate and terrain. In Colorado, you will find the rugged Rocky Mountains and snow-capped peaks to be awe inspiring. In Hawaii, you will encounter an ancient volcano and a string of tropical islands in the blue waters of the Pacific Ocean. You might visit the desert in the Western states and marvel at one of the natural wonders of the world: the grand canyon. If it’s history that you’re seeking, then look no father than the northeast and New England where this country first got it’s start. 

The United States is truly unique in that diversity exists not only geographically, but in the groups of people and the different cultures you encounter throughout this great nation. Experience what the United States has to offer by visiting historical landmarks, geological miracles and other natural and man made feats. Such a trip will provide memories to last a lifetime. So let’s take a road trip together! Join me as we travel through all 50 states and find out what makes America so great!

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

New York Attractions: The History of the Erie Canal

The construction of the Erie Canal in the state of New York was a landmark event in American history in the 19th century. It was the first direct trade route between the East Coast and the Great Lakes region. The canal was the brainchild of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton and was initially considered a plan that could not be implemented due to its magnitude. He campaigned extensively for the project and even undertook a signature campaign to push the cause through. The canal project was also termed “Clinton’s Ditch” and “Clinton’s Folly” by the press and came in for a lot of criticism.

Prior to the canal’s existence, trade and commerce between these regions was an expensive proposition mainly due to the high cost of transporting goods. The construction of the 363-mile canal began on July 4, 1817. Work was completed in 1825, two years ahead of schedule, and the cost of construction was around $7 million. The canal, which winds its way from Albany to Buffalo within the state of New York, helped reduce transport costs significantly and provided settlers better access across the region. The challenging topography of the region was used to the best possible advantage when building the canal. Different contractors were assigned sections of the canal to dig. They also had to provide the necessary equipment as well as hire and supervise the workers.

At the time of its construction, the canal had 83 locks and it was four feet deep and 40 feet wide. There were 18 aqueducts put in to bypass streams and rivers. There was also a 500 foot rise in elevation from the Hudson River to Buffalo. In less than a decade of its existence, the money spent on its construction was collected in the form of toll charges. The tolls were abolished in 1883 though the tonnage on the canal stayed high for a long time. It was estimated that the canal would handle about 1.5 million of tonnage but this figure was exceeded almost right from the beginning.

The success of the canal can be gauged by the fact that about 80 percent of the population of New York now lives within 25 miles of it. Many lateral canals were built following the success of the Erie Canal and integrated into a system which was enlarged twice in the early 20th century. The canal is also credited with uniting the nation not just geographically but also socially and economically. Following the railroad boom and construction of highways in the 20th century, the commercial traffic on the canal system reduced considerably. It is now more of a recreational and historical attraction than an active trade route and has been renamed the New York State Canal System. In 2001, it was chosen as the country’s 23rd National Heritage Corridor. There is no denying the role of the Erie Canal in making New York the nation’s leading port and the busy city it is today. This is something that continues to be immortalized in the form of music, art, and writings to this day.

Erie Canal Information

Erie Canal Education

Resource Guide to Art History

Resource Guide to Art History

Art history may be defined as the educational or academic study of artistic creations and works of arts as well as their development. The earliest forms of art date back to the Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Metal age and continued to develop throughout ancient cultures. Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and China were rich with cultural works of art, all which contribute a comprehensive review of art history. Art history is classified by time periods and region. Many cultures created art for religious or spiritual purposes. Other works of art were created as declaratory pieces that would make a statement. Art may be connected to social and political change, and is nearly always an aspect or reflection of the cultural climate of a region.

History of Art

Some of the oldest archaeological objects known to man are connected to art. Art is entwined in humanity and the course of history has shown that art is here to stay. Man has a need to create, to leave a record, and to express his or her ideas through new mediums. Art may be one of the best cultural records an individual may leave behind. From the dawn of time until modern days, humans on a global scale have and continue to create works of art. Primitive art reveals more about a culture than could be obtained or understood through other means. Where language may fail and prove troublesome to interpret, art speaks to future generations in ways that language never could. Future generations can always learn from the history of art, and the subject is one that is multi-disciplinarian. Art rarely stands alone, but also incorporates literature, social and political connotations, spiritualism, or religious ideas, as well as individual expression. Art can be therapeutic, healing, reserved, the source for critique, and the subject of strong debate. Art is educational and teaches in a visual form that words alone may not convey. The study of art history is a vast subject that opens the learner to new worlds, cultures, and experiences. By studying art history, you will expand your cultural horizons and enrich your life in ways unimaginable.

  • Art History:  Voice of the Shuttle provides this database that links to numerous art history resources.
  • Art Cyclopedia: The Art Cyclopedia is an extensive resource that focuses on artists and art movements throughout history. 
  • Art on the Web: Boston College provides these resources for those studying art history. 

Art time Periods and Art Styles

Art is categorized by style, time period, or phase. Some artists work in a similar manner that developed into a named classification or style. Other artists may be grouped due to the period in which their works were created. This is true of ancient and prehistory works of art. Other works of art are simply grouped by era. Understanding various art periods and styles is crucial for those studying the history of art.

Prehistory 

Prehistoric works of art date back to the early stages of human development. These periods include Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Metal Ages (Copper, Bronze, and Iron). Archaeologists have discovered numerous works of art from these prehistory eras. Prehistoric art, dating back to 25,000 B.C. include works from Africa, Australia, Mediterranean regions, India, and European regions. Art from this time often includes work in stone as well as paintings.

  • Lascaux Cave: The official French site for the Paleolithic caves and prehistoric art work.   

Ancient Art (Mesopotamia, Egypt)

The ancient art of Mesopotamia and Egypt coincide with the development of writing. Art works from Mesopotamia date back to 3500 B.C. while those from Ancient Egypt date back to 3000 B.C. Egypt also developed impressive architectural works of art. These include the Pyramids of Gaza, the underground tomb known as the Valley of the Kings, and monuments such as sphinxes, temples, and shrines.

  • Ancient Egypt: People and art: Penn State explores the art of Ancient Egypt. 

Classical Antiquity

The time period referred to as Classical Antiquity includes works from Greece and Rome. This period spans between the 8th and 6th centuries B.C. and ends with Medieval times and the Renaissance Period. Classical Greece spanned the 5th and 4th centuries with the Roman Republic occurring from the 5th to 1st centuries B.C. The Roman Empire lasted from 1st century B.C. and extended throughout the 5th century A.D. The 4th to 6th centuries A.D. are referred to as Late Antiquity.

Renaissance

The Renaissance period beings at 1300 A.D. and extends until the 1600s, when it became known as Neoclassicism. During the late 13th to 17th century, many works of art were created during the Italian Renaissance. Other works during this time include art from the Early Netherlandish Period and Mannerism. The Baroque Period occurred between Renaissance and Neoclassicism.

  • Renaissance Art: The University of Evansville examines the history of art. 

Baroque

The Baroque Art period was birthed in the Italian Renaissance at approximately 1600 A.D. Receiving the approval of the Roman Catholic Church, Baroque went on to enjoy great success. The style is rife with religious themes and many architectural structures were created during this period for the Catholic Church. One notable artist is Bernini who created St. Theresa in Ecstasy and designed the Cornaro Chapel for the Saint Maria della Vittoria Roman church.

Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism was in contrast to the Baroque style. 

  • Neoclassicism Art:  The City University of New York profiles Neoclassicism art. The time period ran from the mid-1700s throughout the mid-1800s. Where Baroque style was known for its superfluous styles, Neoclassicism drew on the ancient principles and focused on symmetry and simplicity. Neoclassicism

Romanticism

Romanticism spanned from approximately 1790 until 1880. The movement consisted of other eras including the Nazarene, Ancients, Purismo, and the American style Luminism. Sometimes referred to as “Romantic Era,” this time period expressed itself through inspiration. The period is often difficult to sum up in simple terms; however, it has endured longer than many other artistic eras.

Realism

Realism spanned from 1830 until 1870. A French movement, Realism bridged the gap between Romanticism and Modern Art. Realism created works of art and literature that expressed objective reality from a third person’s point of view. Realism was contrary to Romanticism.

Impressionism

Like Realism, Impressionism started in France. Beginning in 1863, Impressionism lasted until 1890. It spread to the United States in 1880. Impressionism was followed by the Post-Impression era and Art Nouveau.

  • Art in Color: Fairleigh Dickinson University highlights Impressionism. 

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau began in France in 1890 and lasted until 1914. Also referred to as “Jugendstil” Art Nouveau was the “New Art.” Art Nouveau was the bridge between Neoclassicism and Modernism. Art Nouveau spread throughout Europe and reached Italy, Germany, Austria, Britain, and more.

Expressionism

Expressionism began in Germany from 1905 until 1930. Many expressionists were inspired by the work of Norwegian artist Edvard Munch “The Scream.” The scream expressed emotional meaning that was not hard for viewers to feel. Expressionism attempts to convey an emotional meaning or experience in art form.

  • Expressionism:  The Catholic University of America examines Expressionism. 

Cubism

Cubism began in France and lasted from 1907 until 1914. Another art period, Cubo Expressionism, lasted from 1909 until 1921. Pablo Picasso is credited with bringing cubism to the forefront, along with Georges Braque. Cubism involves the creation of art work from several viewpoints or perspectives combined in one form.

Surrealism

Surrealism began in France during the 1920s, and is an art form that continues to run strong. Surrealism evolved from Dadaism, a cultural Swiss movement that ran during World War I. It was anti-war and embraced elements of anarchy. Surrealism is viewed as much as a political movement as an artistic one.

Pop Art

Pop Art began during the mid-1950s in Britain and America. Unlike the fine arts, pop art used various mediums found in modern culture, such as commercial or marketing advertisements, movie posters, or Hollywood icons, etc., in order to create new forms of art. Andy Warhol is known for creating new works of art based upon Campbell’s Soup. Pop Art continues as a major art style in modern times.

  • Pop Art:  Saint Michaels College Vermont examines Pop Art.

Studying Art History

There are many benefits to studying art history. Art history majors may find a variety of jobs wait for them after earning a degree. There are teaching positions, work in museums, become an art critic, or use their degree in any art related field. As art is a multi-disciplinarian subject, those who study art learn much more than studying individual artists or their works. Art history encompasses politics, cultural divides, global customs, and sociological behaviors.

Festivals in the United States

Festivals in the United States

A festival is an event or gathering where people congregate to celebrate a certain cause, interest or even the festival itself. Some of the most popular festivals in the United States include the Rose Parade, Mardi Gras, Sundance Film Festival, New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival, Iowa State Festival, Burning Man, and Washington State International Kite Festival. There are many different types of festivals like art festivals, film festivals, food festivals, religious festivals, music festivals, renaissance festivals, theatre festivals, wine and beer festivals, and more. Most people go to festivals because they are interested in the event. For instance, beer lovers will look out for beer festivals, food lovers will look out for food festivals, and music lovers will look out for music festivals. When people go to festivals, they get to meet folks who share their same interests, and enjoy the events and activities. Here’s a comprehensive guide on festivals in the United States.

Arts

Film

Food

Music

Renaissance

Theater

Wine & Beer

A Theatre Guide to Shakespeare

A Theatre Guide to Shakespeare

There have been many well-regarded authors in the history of literature and the theatre. Authors such as Louisa May Alcott, Agatha Christie, Rudyard Kipling, T.S. Eliot and Edgar Allen Poe are just a few of countless notable authors and playwrights that have made a name for themselves in the world of literature. Each has created well-known works and plays that will be kept in high esteem by critics and theatre goers. However, arguably the finest playwright of all time is William Shakespeare.

Born in Stratford-Upon-Avon in England, Shakespeare was a prolific writer of some of the most well-known works in the English language. From comedies to tragedies, Shakespeare has created a highly regarded body of work which has been studied and presented for centuries. Shakespeare first began writing in the late 1500’s and created such masterpieces such as King Lear, As You Like It, Romeo and Juliet and As You Like It. These plays are among the dozens of works of Shakespeare over the course of history.

The works of William Shakespeare have been performed by large and small acting companies for several centuries. Amateur and professional acting companies around the world have put on performances of his works. In fact, the groundbreaking works of Shakespeare have been one of the most commonly performed works of all time. We hope you enjoy the following resources to gain a better understanding of the life and works of William Shakespeare.

William Shakespeare Biography

Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre

Shakespeare’s Comedies

Shakespeare’s Tragedies

Online Works of William Shakespeare

Additional Shakespeare Resources

  • Shakespeare Resource Center – Helpful collection of information and works of the famed English writer.
  • Shakespeare and the Internet – Collection of helpful resources online that are discussing the works and life of Shakespeare.
  • Shakespeare Online – Useful information and analysis of the plays and other works of William Shakespeare.
  • Shakespeare Resources – Resourceful site providing links to a number of helpful sites surrounding the works and life of Shakespeare.
  • William Shakespeare Resources – Informative website providing a number of useful links surrounding the works and life of Shakespeare.
  • Shakespeare Resources – Helpful and educational page providing various resources on the history of Shakespeare.

We hope we have provided helpful information on the life and work of one of the most influential people in the history of literature.